Phylum Sipuncula In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,. Malachite Marketing and Media, Pretoria. Sipuncula is a clade of unsegmented, coelomate marine worms. . Sipuncula, however, with sipunculans as an annelid ingroup, other. Phylum Sipuncula. Class Phascolosomatidea. Order Aspidosiphoniformes. Family Aspidosiphonidae. Aspidosiphon Diesing, Aspidosiphon elegans.

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At the termination of the gut coil, the rectum emerges and ends in the anus. When threatened, Sipunculids can contract their body into a shape resembling a peanut kernel —a practice that has given rise to the name “peanut worm”.

Phylum Sipuncula

Fluid transport and gas exchange cilum instead accomplished by the coelomwhich contains the respiratory pigment haemerythrinand the tentacular system. Burrowing and crawling are accomplished by utilizing the introvert hooks as anchors and the introvert musculature to pull the body forward. Most species retract their tentacles and introvert quickly following a tactile stimulus. The anus lies dorsally, usually at the anterior end of the trunk, except in some species where it is shifted anteriorly onto the introvert.

Both asexual and sexual reproduction can be found in sipunculans, although asexual reproduction is uncommon.

Phylum Sipuncula

The sipunculan body is divided into an unsegmented, bulbous trunk and a narrower, anterior section, called the “introvert”. This sipunculid worm dish is made by adding vinegar and local spices.

Since the s, there is general agreement that sipunculans are protostomes and closely related to annelids and mollusks, but their exact position still remains unresolved. Ecdysozoa Scalidophora Kinorhyncha mud dragons Priapulida sipuncuka worms. Metamorphosis occurs only in the presence of suitable sediment, and is triggered by the presence of adults.


Sipuncula – Wikipedia

Entoprocta or Kamptozoa Ectoprocta moss animals. The coelomic fluid contains five types of coelomic cells: Sipunculans reproduce asexually via transverse fission followed by regeneration of vital body components.

Golfingia is now the genus name and Sipuncula the name of the phylum to which these worms belong. Asexual reproduction by budding has been reported in Aspidosiphon elegans. The tentacles each have a deep groove along which food is moved to the mouth by cilia. This is usually prepared by cleaning the muscle and soaking it in vinegar and spices in a style similar to ceviche. Phylogenetic analyses based on 79 ribosomal proteins indicated a position of Sipuncula within Annelida.

This style of food preparation is locally called kilawin or kinilawand is also done for fish, conch, and vegetables. Specific distribution map not available. Communicative and Integrative Biology.

The worms stay submerged in the sea bed between 10 and 18 hours a day and are sensitive to salinity, and thus not commonly found near estuaries. A related species was later described as Golfingia macintoshii by E. The specimen was provided by a friend of his, Professor Mackintosh.

American Zoologist, 16, — The Sipuncula or Sipunculida common names sipunculid worms or peanut worms is a group containing — species estimates vary of bilaterally symmetricalunsegmented marine worms. The downward and upward sections of the gut are coiled around each other, forming a double helix. Brachiopoda lamp shells Phoronida horseshoe worms. Phascolion strombus, an inhabitant of gastropod shells, is able to irrigate its shell to increase oxygen content by contractions of the body wall musculature.


The first species of this phylum was described in by the French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville who named it Sipunculus vulgaris. When the introvert is retracted in these animals, the anal shield blocks the entrance to its burrow. Most sipunculan species are dioecious. In the trunk the intestine runs posteriorly, forms a loop and turns anteriorly again.

Some scientists once hypothesized a close relationship between sipunculans and the extinct hyolithsoperculate shells from the Palaeozoic with which they share a helical gut; but this hypothesis has since been discounted. Other sipunculans appear to have lived in association with corals and in vacated mollusk shells since the mid-Paleozoic, throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.

Xenacoelomorpha Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella Acoelomorpha acoels nemertodermatids. Kinorhyncha mud dragons Priapulida penis worms.

They have been found in all depths from the intertidal zone to 22, ft 6, m. The intestine is characteristically U-shaped, with the ascending and descending branches coiled around each other in a double helix.

Algal mats, large sponges, root mats of mangroves or sea grass, and byssal threads of bivalves also serve as habitats for some species. The nephridiopores lie ventro-laterally, typically at the level of the anus. It sipuncjla a common meal for fisherfolk and is a sought-after but not so common appetizer in city restaurants. Placozoa Trichoplax Cnidaria jellyfish and relatives. More filuum Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil burrows have also been attributed to sipunculan worms.

The sipunculan body is divided into trunk and retractable introvert.